CONTACT and INFORMATION
For further information about PROCO, please contact :



9, allée des Vergers
F - 75012 Paris / France

telephone: +33 6 76 97 42 95
telefax: +33 9 57 89 24 34

e-mail: proco@proco-france.com
web site: www.proco-france.com



Interesting and Useful LINKS :

AFNOR  (Association francaise de normalisation)
  http://www.afnor.fr

AIIM  (Association for Information and Image Management)
  http://www.aiim.org

ANSI  (American National Standards Institute)
  http://ansi.org/

APAVE  (Control Organisation)
  http://www.apave.com

API  (American Petroleum Institute)
  http://www.api.org

ASME  (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
  http://www.asme.org

ASTM  (American Society for Testing and Materials)
  http://www.astm.org

BSI  
  http://www.bsi-global.com

Chemindustry.com  (Chemical Search Engine)
http://www.chemindustry.com

DIN  (Deutsches Institut fr Normung)
  http://www2.din.de

GOST  (Gosstandart of Russia)
  http://www.gost.ru

GOSGORTECHNADZOR  
  http://www.gosnadzor.ru

IEEC  
  http://standards.computer.org

IFP  (Petrochemical Institute)
  http://www.ifp.fr

ISO  (International Organization for Standardization)
  http://www.iso.ch

ISS  (The Iron & Steel Society)
  http://www.iss.org

JS  (Japanese Standards Association)
  http://www.jsa.or.jp/default_english.asp

Key To Steel  (Steel Database)
  http://www.key-to-steel.com

KSA  (Korean Standards Association)
  http://www.ksa.or.kr

Pipe Conferences  
  http://www.pipeconferences.com

Pipe & Pipelines  
  http://www.pipemag.com

SGS  (Control Organisation)
  http://www.sgs.com

SNIP  (Russian National Standards)
  http://www.snip.com

TUV  (Control Organisation)
  http://www.tuv.com

Worldpipe  (Pipeline Portal)
  http://www.scientificsurveys.com




Measures Conversion Charts :

Conversion Factors :

LENGTH
1 statute mile = 1.609344 km 1 km = 0.6213712 statute mile
1 yd = 0.9144 m 1 m = 1.0936133 yd
1 ft = 0.304799 m 1 m = 3.280851 ft
1 in = 2.5399956 cm 1 cm = 0.39370147 in
1 in = 25.399956 mm 1 mm = 0.03937014 in
AREA
1 mile2 = 2.589998 km2 1 km2 = 0.3861007 statute mile
1 acre = 0.4046873 ha 1 ha = 2.4710437 acres
1 acre = 4046.873 m2 1 m2 = 0.0002471 acres
1 yd2 = 0.8361274 m2 1 m2 = 1.19599 yd2
1 ft2 = 0.09290304 m2 1 m2 = 10.7639104 ft2
1 in2 = 645.16 mm2 1 mm2 = 0.0015500 in2
VOLUME
1 acre ft = 1233.489 m3 1 m3 = 0.0008107 acre ft
1 yd3 = 0.7645549 m3 1 m3 = 1.307951 yd3
100 board ft = 0.2359737 m3 1 m3 = 4.2377604 board ft
1 ft3 = 0.02831685 m3 1 m3 = 35.3147 ft3
1 in3 = 16387.06 mm3 1 mm3 = 0.000061 in3
1 in3 = 16.3871 cm3 1 cm3 = 0.061024 in3
1 barrel = 0.1589873 m3 1 m3 = 6.2898106 barrel
FLUID CAPACITY
1 gal (US) = 3.785412 L 1 L = 0.264172 gal (US)
1 qt (US) = 946.3529 mL 1 mL = 0.0010567 qt (US)
1 pt (US) = 473.1765 mL 1 mL = 0.0021134 pt (US)
1 fl oz (US) = 29.5735 mL 1 mL = 0.0338141 fl oz (US)
1 gal (US) = 0.003785412 m3 1 m3 = 264.1720373 gal (US)
1 barrel (US) = 158.98 L 1 L = 0.0062901 barrel (US)
1 gal (US) = 0.83333 gal (UK) (approx.) 1 L = 0.001 m3 (approx.)
PLANE ANGLE
1 (degree) = 0.01745329 rad 1 rad = 57.2957878 (degree)
1 (degree) = 17.45329 mrad 1 mrad = 0.0572958 (degree)
1 (minute) = 290.8882 urad 1 urad = 0.0034377 (minute)
1" (second) = 4.848137 urad 1 urad = 0.2062648" (second)
SPEED
1 ft/m = 0.3048 m/m 1 m/m = 3.2808399 ft/m
1 ft/m = 0.00508 m/s 1 m/s = 196.8503937 ft/m
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s 1 m/s = 3.2808399 ft/s
1mile/h = 1.609344 km/h 1 km/h = 0.6213712 mile/h
1mile/h = 0.44704 m/s 1 m/s = 2.2369363 mile/h
TEMPERATURE
F = [ (F - 32) /1.8 ] oC C = (C x 1.8 + 32 ) F
Example:   60 F = [ (60 - 32) /1.8] = 15.6 C Example:   30 C = (30 x 1.8 + 32 ) = 86F
FLOW
1 ft3/s = 0.02831685 m3/s 1 m3/s = 35.3146625 ft3/s
1 ft3/min = 0.4719474 L/s 1 L/s = 2.1188802 ft3/min
1 gal/min = 0.0630902 L/s 1 L/s = 15.8503222 gal/min
1gal/min = 0.0038 m3/min 1 m3/min = 263.1578947 gal/min
1 gal/hour = 1.0515 mL/s 1 mL/s = 0.9510223 gal/hour
1 million gal/d = 43.8126 L/s 1 L/s = 0.0228245 million gal/d
1 acre ft/s = 1233.49 m3/s 1 m3/s = 0.0008107 acre ft/s
MASS (WEIGHT)
1 ton (short) = 0.907185 metric ton 1 metric ton = 1.102311 ton (short)
1 ton (short) = 907.1847 kg 1 kg = 0.0011023 ton (short)
1 ton (long) = 1016.04706 kg 1 kg = 0.0009842 ton (long)
1 lb = 0.4535924 kg 1 kg = 2.2046225 lb
1 oz = 28.34952 g 1 g = 0.035274 oz
Note: 1 long ton = 1.12 short ton = 2240 lb
MASS PER UNIT AREA
1 lb/ft2 = 4.882428 kg/m2 1 kg/m2 = 0.2048161 lb/ft2
1 oz/yd2 = 33.90575 g/m2 1 g/m2 = 0.0294935 oz/yd2
1 oz/ft2 = 305.1517 g/m2 1 g/m2 = 0.0032771 oz/ft2
DENSITY
1 lb/ft3 = 16.01846 kg/m3 1 kg/m3 = 0.062428 lb/ft3
1 lb/yd3 = 0.5932764 kg/m3 1 kg/m3 = 1.685555 lb/yd3
1 ton/ yd3 = 1.186553 t/m3 1 t/m3 = 0.8427774 ton/ yd3
FORCE
1 tonf (ton-force) = 8.89644 kN 1 kN = 0.1124045 tonf (ton-force)
1 kip (1,000 lbf) = 4.44822 kN 1 kN = 0.224809 kip (1,000 lb)
1 lbf (pound-force) = 4.44822 N 1 N = 0.224809 lbf (pound-force)
MOMENT OF FORCE
1 lbf f = 1.355818 N m 1 N m = 0.7375621 lbf f
1 lbf in = 0.1129848 N m 1 N m = 8.8507481 lbf in
1 tonf ft = 2.71164 kN m 1 kN m = 0.3687805 tonf ft
1 kip ft = 1.35582 kN m 1 kN m = 0.737561 kip ft
FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH
1 lb/ft = 14.5939 N/m 1 N/m = 0.0685218 lb/ft
1 lbf/in = 175.1268 N/m 1 N/m = 0.0057101 lb/in
1 tonf/ft = 29.1878 kN/m 1 kN/m = 0.0342609 tonf/ft
PRESSURE, STRESS
1 tonf/in2 = 13.7895 Mpa 1Mpa = 0.0725189 tonf/in2
1 tonf/ft2 = 95.7605 kPa 1 kPa = 0.0104427 tonf/ft2
1 kip/in2 = 6.894757 Mpa 1 Mpa = 0.1450377 kip/in2
1 lbf/in2 = 6.894757 kPa 1 kPa = 0.1450377 lbf/in2
1 lbf/ft2 = 47.8803 Pa 1 Pa = 0.0208854 lbf/ft2
Atmosphere = 101.3250 kPa 1 kPa = 0.0098692 Atmosphere
1 inch mercury = 3.37685 kPa 1 kPa = 0.296134 inch mercury
1 foot water column = 2.98898 kPa 1 kPa = 0.3345623 foot water column
WORK, ENERGY, HEAT
1 kWh (550 ft lbf/s) = 3.6 MJ 1 MJ = 0.2777778 kWh (550 ft lbf/s)
1 BTU = 1.055056 kJ 1 kJ = 0.947817 BTU
1 BTU = 1055.056 J 1 J = 0.0009478 BTU
1 ft lbf = 1.355818 J 1 J = 0.7375621 ft lbf
HEAT TRANSFER
1 BTU/(ft2 h F) = 5.678263 W/(m2 K) 1 W/m2 K = 0.1761102 BTU/(ft2 h F)
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
1 BTU/(ft h F) = 1.730735 W/(m K) 1 W/m K = 0.5777892 BTU/(ft h F)
ILLUMINANCE
1 lm/ft2(footcandle) = 10.76391 lx (lux) 1 lx = 0.092903 lm/ft2(footcandle)
LUMINANCE
1 cd/ft2 = 10.7639 cd/m2 1 cd/m2 = 0.0929031 cd/ft2
1 foot lambert = 3.426259 cd/m2 1 cd/m2 = 0.2918635 foot lambert
1 lambert = 3.183099 kcd/m2 1 kcd/m2 = 0.3141593 lambert





Graphic Scales :

IMPERIAL SCALE METRIC SCALE
Full Size 1:1
Half Size 1:2
3"=1-0" 1:5 (1:4)
1 "=1-0" 1:10 (1:8)
"=1-0" 1:25 (1:24)
"=1-0" 1:50 (1:48)
1/8"=1-0" 1:100 (1:96)
1/16"=1-0" 1:200 (1:192)
"=10-0" 1:250 (1:240)
"=10-0" 1:500 (1:480)
1/8"=10-0" 1:1000 (1:960)
1/16"=10-0" 1:2000 (1:1920)





Prefixes

Factor  Prefix Symbol

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1018

exa

E

1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1015

peta

P

1 000 000 000 000 = 1012

tera T

1 000 000 000 = 109

giga G

1 000 000 = 106

mega M

1 000 = 103

kilo k

100 = 102

hecto h

10 = 101

deka da

0.1 = 10-1

deci d

0.01 = 10-2

centi c

0.001 = 10-3

milli m

0.000 001 = 10-6

micro m

0.000 000 001 = 10-9

nano n

0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12

pico p

0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15

femto f

0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18

atto a





Units, Derived Units, and Symbols

Quantity Unit Symbol
Length kilometer km
  meter m
  decimeter dm
  centimeter cm
  millimeter mm
     
Volume cubic meter m3
  cubic decimeter dm3
  cubic centimeter cm3
  cubic millimeter mm3
Fluid liter L
  milliliter mL
     
     
Speed kilometers per hour km/h
  meters per minute m/mn
  meters per second m/s
Force, Stress newton N
Pressure pascal Pa
Power watt W
Energy, Work joule J
Illuminance lux lx
Luminance candela ca
Luminous Flux lumen lm
Nuclear Activity becquerel Bq
Absorbed Dose gray Gy
Area square kilometer km2
  square meter m2
  square decimeter dm2
  square centimeter cm2
  square millimeter mm2
  hectare ha
Weight ton t
  kilogram kg
  gram g
  milligram mg
Angle degree (1)
  minute m; (1)
  second s; (1)"
  radian rad
Temperature Celsius C
  Kelvin K
     
Electric Current ampere A
Electric Potential volt V
Electric Charge coulomb C
Electric Resistance ohm W
Capacitance farad F
Conductance siemens S
Magnetic Flux weber Wb
Magnetic Flux Density tesla T
Inductance henry H





Units Area

1 km2 100 ha 1 000 000 m2 100 000 000 000 000 cm2
0.01 km2 1 ha 10 000 m2 100 000 000 cm2
0.001 km2 ha 1 m2 10 000 cm2
0.00001 km2 ha 0.01 m2 1 cm2





Units Length

1 km 1000 m 100 000 cm 1000 000 mm
0.001 km 1 m 100 cm 1000 mm
0.00001 km 0.01 m 1 cm 10 mm
0.000001 km 0.001 m 0.1 cm 1 mm